Embankment fill Construction

Expanded Clay Aggregate (ECA®) embankments and fills can be constructed in the following ways depending on the technical, economic and design requirements or constraints:

1. Embankments/fills consisting of Expanded Clay Aggregate (ECA®) only 

Achieved Desity: 400 - 600 kg/m3.


  • Geotextile separation layer to be laid with founding ground
  • Expanded Clay Aggregate (ECA®) laying process is decided based on compaction which helps derive the thickness 
  • Process of compaction of Expanded Clay Aggregate (ECA®) is carried out with a vibrating plate compactor (References: Typical weight 50-140 kg, width 50-80 cm, contact stress < 5 kN/m2, Frequency 75-100 Hz) or a vehicle with (excavator, shovel, bulldozer – Reference contact stress < 50 kN/m2) The number of passes required will depend on the thickness of the layers and the machine in use.

2. Embankments fill consisting of alternating layers of Expanded Clay Aggregate (ECA®) and granular mix (of gravel or rock)

Achieved Density: 600 - 1200 kg/m3.

Thickness of each layer:  As per design requirements.

Spreading sequence (repeated):

  • A geotextile separation layer to be in contact with the founding ground.
  • 1st Layer of Expanded Clay Aggregate (ECA®) : Laying thickness of 20 - 100 cm.
  • Geotextile layer required.
  • Granular mix layer thickness of at least 10 cm
  • Granular mix top layer needs compaction using a vibrating roller with a typical weight 15-50 kN.

Combination layers total thickness (ECA® + Granular mix should not exceed 120 cm )

Granular mix final finishing layers should be a minimum 30-40 cm thick