Embankment fill Construction

Embankment fill Construction

Expanded Clay Aggregate (ECA) embankments and fills can be constructed in the following ways depending on the technical, economic and design requirements or constraints:

1. Embankments/fills consisting of Expanded Clay Aggregate (ECA) only 

Achieved Desity: 400 - 600 kg/m3.


  • Geotextile separation layer to be laid with founding ground
  • Expanded Clay Aggregate (ECA) laying process is decided based on compaction which helps derive the thickness 
  • Process of compaction of Expanded Clay Aggregate (ECA) is carried out with a vibrating plate compactor (References: Typical weight 50-140 kg, width 50-80 cm, contact stress < 5 kN/m2, Frequency 75-100 Hz) or a vehicle with (excavator, shovel, bulldozer – Reference contact stress < 50 kN/m2) The number of passes required will depend on the thickness of the layers and the machine in use.

2. Embankments fill consisting of alternating layers of Expanded Clay Aggregate (ECA) and granular mix (of gravel or rock)

Achieved Density: 600 - 1200 kg/m3.

Thickness of each layer:  As per design requirements.

Spreading sequence (repeated):

  • A geotextile separation layer to be in contact with the founding ground.
  • 1st Layer of Expanded Clay Aggregate (ECA) : Laying thickness of 20 - 100 cm.
  • Geotextile layer required.
  • Granular mix layer thickness of at least 10 cm
  • Granular mix top layer needs compaction using a vibrating roller with a typical weight 15-50 kN.

Combination layers total thickness (ECA + Granular mix should not exceed 120 cm )

Granular mix final finishing layers should be a minimum 30-40 cm thick